Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Religion - Mysticism - Essay Example Understanding the relationship between human and their faiths is a vital aspect of understanding mysticism since it help understand the individual and the faith among other vital features of mysticism. Such an elusive introduction presents the relativity aspect of mysticism, which further presents scholars with more challenges. Spiritual beliefs vary in people. Christians believe in the existence of God alongside the numerous different doctrines of their churches, Muslims have similar structures and so are pagans among many other faiths throughout the world. Each of the numerous beliefs has a distinctive definition and application of mysticism in their attempt to develop a relationship with their faiths. The relativity of faiths introduces a concept of relativity in the study of mysticism as well. This complicates and may curtail the study of mysticism in most cases. In order to understand mysticism in a faith, a scholar must become conversant with the faith and understand the relationship an individual develops with their supernatural beings. The need to understand the traditional practices of individuals in order to understand the relative concept of mysticism makes the study more hectic to scholars. Traditions are cultural aspects of human life that helps explains the beliefs of an individual. Culture refers to non-genetic features of an individual most of which the individuals obtain from the society. Belief in a supernatural being is a vital aspect of culture that helps understand the mysticism. Different societies have their respective types of transformation and beliefs. Most traditional societies believed in the role of ancestral spirits in the transformational process. Such societies believed that the ancestors were intermediaries between them and the supernatural beings. The introduction of Christianity and Islam among other contemporary faiths
Friday, January 31, 2020
History 1112 - Essay Example reatest of the social changes that occurred out of these contacts and interactions between the continents is colonization, where the Western/central Europe sought to colonize America and Africa, in search for resources, free labor and settlements (Prak, 41). Slavery is yet another social change that occurred, resulting to the shipment of Africans from their continent to Europe and America to provide the required free labor. A range of economic changes also took place as a result of these contacts. The first notable economic change that occurred following the contacts is industrialization, which was majorly promoted by the availability of labor and raw material which could easily be sourced from America and Africa and then shipped to Europe (Prak, 60). Infrastructural development is yet the other economic change that occurred as a result of the contacts, where the Europeans had to construct infrastructural facilities in their colonies both in Africa and America, as well as at home to enhance the transportation of labor as well as raw materials required by the established
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Comparison Between Piano Concert by Barbara Wieman and Sacramento Chamber Orchestra Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã On Feb 20,1997, I attended a piano concert that was performed by Barbara Wieman. The performance was held at the American River College Music Department choir room. The choir room holds about 100 people and every seat was taken and students were seated on the floor. The audience was dressed casual as everyone was students trying to do their concert papers. Barbara Weiman was also dressed casual but nice. The piano concert started at 12:20pm and was finished at 1:05pm. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The program started with a piece from L.V. Beethoven called Sonata in F minor, Op.57. This piece can be characterized by an intense, dramatic use of fluctuating dynamics. It was as if the crescendo was not allowed to climax, then is aborted by a sudden change to pianissimo. The so called Beethoven motif was used throughout the piece, very effectively I might add. Barbara Wieman was very animated performing this piece and seemed to be very emotional while playing. This piece was very distinct and there was an effective use of rests that was displayed. I would call this piece very serious. After Beethoven we were treated to F. Schuberts Impromptu in G flat Major, Op. 90, No.3. This piece was very pleasing to the ear so we could call this consonant. The music seemed to flow and had a great rhythm. This piece was romantic in nature and probably that is why it was written in the romantic era. C. Debussy Ã¢â¬Ës Feux d'artifice (fireworks) was the next piece played. The harmony was very obscured in this piece of music. The theme trying to be presented in this piece was as if fireworks were going off. The notes were ever changing and there was a very good uses of all the keys of the piano. This piece was not very pleasing at all and I did not care for it at all. From looking around the room it seemed other people would agree. After that unpleasant piece was played we were lead into La Cathedrale engloutie (The Sunken Cathedral). It was very slow starting but eventually started building the tempo and then seemed to drop off and become very slow in tempo. This piece seemed as if it were trying to tell a story. Alot of people seemed as if th... ...ught us back with a touching recollection of the very beginning of the work. The Bartok Divertimento was in three movements. It can be best described as continuous, fascinating, exciting and full of action. The melodies were strong, as were the rhythmic pulses and dissonance's. So much was happening that all you could do was go for the ride and enjoy it. The last major piece was by Copland, called Concerto for Clarinet and String Orchestra with Harp and Piano.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Copland piece was in two movements bridged by an unusually long cadenza (Soloist), that lasted over three minutes. The soloist seemed to dwell on the lyric sweetness of the first movement and then signaled the merriment of the second movement. The first part struck me as very slow but the second part was very rhythmic,very perky, and was passed around appreciatively by all, while the piano and clarinet were trading ideas with each other. All in all, this piece signaled excitement and was made very enjoyable with the clarinet and piano. As this was my first Chamber Concert I was not sure what to expect. I thoroughly enjoyed myself and I'm looking forward to my next concert.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Growing up here in Charlotte NC was very hard for me and my family. As a young child, I was the younger of two children actually, I was the middle child of three, I had a baby brother who died at a young age from an illness. Well as a young child I grew up on the West side of town called West Blvd. and then we moved to Rosszell ferry Rd.We stay there till I was in the 5th grade we then moved to Columbus Circle and then to Bruns Ave as you can see I moved around a lot but it did not matter everywhere we moved I was always the one who got picked on because of my clothes and hair, My hair was short because it was not took care of, my clothes were not new, we had to shop at the thrift store of the goodwill to find things that would fit. I remember as a young child one year for Christmas me and my brother did not get anything for Christmas, O my God I was so hurt.All my cousins got all these toys but me and my brother did not get anything, and the sad part about all this is my Father had brought me and my brother bikes but he took them to SC and gave them to his girlfriend children. I also remember as a young child as the one who was always took down in the basement and messed with by my uncle, or when I went to visit my cousin their older brother would try to mess with me, This thing I took and push in the back of my mind, and tried to live my life as best I knew how. Living life as a teenager really was hard.I was known as the Black Dolly Pardon, WOW this was hard but I still push my way through this. I manage to finish school and college but life was still hard. At the age of 21 I got pregnant with my second child, O I did not tell you I got popped at the age of 16 and lost the baby, I lost the baby at 3 months. When I was 19 I decided to leave home, and that was the worst decision of my life, I was abuse by my son father, who has passed away, James E. Henderson was killed in 2007. In 1986 I gave birth to a son Jonathan D. Adams. Jonathan is now 26 years old.In 1 987 I had another son name Sirquentin Q Adams and a Daughter name Rasheena Adams. At the age of 24 I had three children and no husband; I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do. God I really needed your help, things began to spin out of control, I was living wherever I could and that was no fun, But I made it, at the age of 27 my father put me and my three children out on the street with nowhere to go, I was so hurt I ended up staying with a guy who hurt me by letting me know that me and my baby girl could stay but not my boys so I had to find somewhere to go, I ended up moving in with a friend who let her hildren abuse my children by biting, scratching, pinching, and whatever they could to hurt my children. Until I moved in with my cousin and only stayed there for about a month or two then I got my own house through the section 8 program. I stayed in the program for 15 years. I became very sick with sleep apnea and high blood pressure. But I still kept trying to live the best life I could.W hat I am trying to say is all my life I was bullied, picked on, talked about and threw under the bus, this hurt very badly. I am learning to live life the best I know how, but I still have not learn the lesson yet. I have always made sure that my children and everyone else that was connected to me was ok, But I never really took care of me, I am now living with my cousin on there couch, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really want to be here but it is either here or in the shelter.God I am in need of your help, this thing is affecting me so bad to the point that I am not even in place in church. I now ask that you forgive me for all my sins, and mistakes, God please forgive me, I just want to please you. God I need my own apartment and I need it to be furniture, I need all my debts to be caught up so I can start over again. God I just want a chance to start over and make things right with you and myself. God I just want to live in peace.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Sample details Pages: 19 Words: 5842 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Environment Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? 1.0Introduction The Asian Citrus Psyllid is referred botanically called Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a pest of citrus and close relatives of citrus. Together with the African Citrus Psyllid Trioza erytreae (del Guercio) are the two most dangerous citrus pests in the World (Bronson Gaskalla par.1). Diaphorina citri Kuwayama causes extreme damage to the crop by spreading pathogens that cause greening or the yellow dragon disease to the citrus plants. The disease can also be referred as the yellow shoot disease because the shoots of the citrus plants become yellow in color. Furthermore the disease also causes chlorosis as if the plant is lacking the zinc nutrient, the twigs are affected and there is reduced fruit size and the productivity declines. The fruit color is not well developed and this to the greening effect hence the name greening disease (Bronson Gaskalla par.2). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Asian Citrus Psyllid | Sciences Dissertations" essay for you Create order Buitendag Broembsen argue that the interaction between the vector and the pathogen is not well known and range from 30 minutes for the Asian Citrus Psyllid and 24 hours for the African Psyllid hence the Asian pest is more lethal. The Asian Citrus Psyllid have been a menace to farmers in South Texas (p.269). The pathogens are believed to multiply in the vectors hence increasing in numbers and causing havoc to the citrus plants (Aubert 150). The adult Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) are small ranging between 3 to 4 millimeters and have brown wings. These insects are very active and move very fast. The eggs are bright yellow in color and are laid on the feathery flush. Nymphs are either green or dark orange and feed on the leaves and also the stem and can be hard to find in a field unless one is keen (Bronson Gaskalla par.4). Citrus is a universal terminology employed to refer to a number of cultivated plant genus belonging to the Rutaceae folks such as Grapefruit, emerald, oranges and lemon. The US produces about forty percent of the collective grapefruit produced globally; this includes both processed as well as fresh fruit bazaar. The states in which this crop is grown include Florida, Arizona and South Texas. This research will be based on South Texas whereby the pest is a menace and has caused poor production in citrus products (Evans et al 126). Total acreage of commercial Citrus in Texas is at twenty seven thousand acres quantified at a fiscal value worth one hundred and sixty million dollars (Rosson 1). The initiation of citrus production in Texas stretch back in the 1849, when the earliest citrus trees were planted near Brazoria (Anciso 162).The concentration of commercial citrus in southern Texas is due to the regions fertile alkaline soils besides to subtropical environment that are moderately appropriate for citrus construction (Sauls 254). Nevertheless, owing to the lack of adequate rainfall, almost all of citrus orchards in the LRGV are irrigated, with most of the water acquired from the Rio Grande River (Uckoo et al 25). Roughly 35 natural species are witnessed feeding as well as causing some echelon of spoil in Texas citrus. In the midst of these pests, the ACP is regarded the most detrimental one. In a recent grower survey, ACP has been ranked as the precedence nuisance by growers affecting the production of citrus world wide. The natural enemies of ACP are useful mainly in reducing the population of the pest. These natural enemies are important in the control of the Asian Citrus Psyllids because they are better than controlling then using chemical which in pollute the environment and are known to cause side effects to the people who consume the citrus fruits (Guun Stevens 190). 2.0. Justification of The Study 2.1. Economic Importance of Citrus United States is one of the major producers of citrus fruits in the world. It has almost six hundred and twenty one acres of citrus groves which are consumed locally as well as globally. For the total citrus production in the USA, Florida produces 60 percent followed by California 28 percent, then Arizona and Texas four percent. For instance, in 2005 approximately there were forty two thousand commercial fruit farm providing citrus fruits to all states within USA and roughly one hundred and forty countries worldwide. The leading constituent was oranges at 800 million US dollar grapefruits second with an overall value of 174 million US dollar and lastly temple oranges and tangerines. The economic benefits of citrus production in the United States go further than the value of the fruit. The by products like citrus pulp, Molasses and D-Limonene are vital and are used in other ways hence their economic importance can not be underestimated. D-Limonene is significant oil extorted from the peels of citrus fruits and seeds and it is utilized in the cleaning of flavorings and colognes, (Florida Department of Citrus Economic and Market Research Department 86). 2.2. Source of Raw materials The production of citrus fruits in the United States has a significant impact on other firms including utility industries, transport and warehouse firms, finance and insurance in addition to tax revenues (sales and property taxes). The United States citrus industries have a great value on the overall economic growth annually of eight seven billion dollars and offers job opportunities to 769,224 people in the country. In addition, citrus industries has improved the livelihood ofpeople especially the residents of Florida, supportsin the conservation of the environment through purification of air, food security. 2.3. Ecological and Aesthetic Benefits Moreover, citrus orchards have proved to offer sites for rainfall to ooze into the ground and restock the aquifers. Contemporary citrus groves are designed in a manner that is important in the conservation of innate wetlands and generate huge on-site water preservation areas to incarcerate storm-water runoff. Additionally, these sites provide outstanding habitat for wildlife that contribute to overall growth of the economy in form of tourists attraction both locally and internationally. Undoubtedly, citrus production is a vital facet in the USA economy. Lamentably, many factors have contributed to loss of production. Among them includes greening disease which was introduced through infected plants with the pest commonly called ACP. The disease has greatly reduced production levels for instance in 1997 there were eight hundred and fifteen citrus plants generating more than 13 million tons of citrus fruits but this greatly reduced and by almost half in 2006. The south Texass farms were highly affected and the blame was pointed on the ACP increase in population. To control this pest is a clear indication to solve the problem of poor production in the farms in the South Texas. Thus this research is aimed at promoting biological pest control instead of relying on the pesticides which are not environmentally friendly and also expensive to undertake. 3.0. Literature Review 3.1. History of Asian Citrus Psyllids Initially, the Asian Cytrus Psyllid was known to be in the tropical and the sub-tropical area like Asia, Saudi Arabia, Mauritius, Afghanistan, Mexico, Reunion, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. However, this pest was found in the United States Florida state in June, 1998 in the Palm Beach County (Halbert et al 330). In the state of Texas, its introduction was an accident. It got to the Rio Grand Valley on potted nursery stocks of the plant orange jasmine, which had been imported from the state of Florida (French et al 15). Due to this, the current fear is that it might end up invading other states especially the state of California, especially from Florida, Mexico or very likely from Asia being as a result of the recurrent interruption of the transportation of plant materials from Asia- especially the citrus plants and so on. 3.2. The Destructive Nature of the Pest Due to the destructive nature of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, many agricultural organizations have come up with ways of the management of the pest. South Texas, whose citrus orchards make a considerable contribution to the economy of Texas -$ 200 million. The state also has to be keen on the management of the pests since it has already invaded the farms. The concentration of the orchards is in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (Sauls254), where the pest was introduced. The research on the diversity of the natural enemies of the Asian Cytrus Psyllid and their effect will supply good information for the management of the pests, hence boost productivity. 3.3. The Pest Life Cycle of Asian Citrus Psyllid Its life cycle like that of the grasshopper is divided into three main stages that is egg, nymph and adult. The eggs are laid on growing young shoots and between the leaves. Females normally lay about 300 to 800 eggs during their life time. Nymphs undergo five developmental stages before attaining maturity. The total life cycle requires between duration of half a month to about 47 days depending on the surrounding environmental factors like temperature and seasonal variation. Populations are always low during the winter and and dry seasons and peak during summer. There are 9 to ten generations in a year although more than this also been observed in the field cages (www.hungrypests.com par.7). 3.4. Enemies of the pest at different stages of its life cycle. There are different enemies to this pest at its different stages. There are those that destroy the egg, those that attack the nymph and those that attack the adult Asian Citrus Psyllid. The enemies range from bacteria and fungus to parasitic insects and beetles. Some of the enemies do affect the plant and cause a lot of harm to it for instance the bacteria. Some completely destroy the pest, but do not cause any harm to the plant, hence are recommended for the control of the pest. 3.4.0 Enemies at the Egg/nymph stage There are insects that largely feed on the nymphs hence denying them a chance to mature. The most common wasp that are known for attacking the nymphs of Asian Citrus Psyllid pest are referred to as hymenophterous parasites. They are two tiny wasps namely Tamarixia radiata (waterson) whose origin is Taiwan and Vietnam; and diaphorencytrus aligarhensis (shaffee, Alam and Agarwal) whose origin is Taiwan. The adult Tamarixia radiata lays eggs underneath an Asian Cytrus Psyllid nymph and when the egg hatches, it feeds on the Psyllid and kills it. Upon maturing, the adult wasp emerges from underneath the dead nymph or it chews its way out, thus leaving a hole (McFarland Hoy 227-230). The above is illustrated by the figure below: 3.4.1. Beetles There are two nymphal lady beetles that are popular predators of the nymphs of the pest, Asian Citrus Psyllid. They are referred to as Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Ollav-nigrum (Mulant). These, while they are at both nymphal stage and adult stage, nourish themselves on the nymphs of the pest thus immensely reducing their population. The Harmonia. axyridis is known for its predatory habits of feeding on aphids of various species. Normally, it consumes up to 370 aphids through the larval stage, depending on the species of aphids it is consuming (Hukusima Kamei 55). As it develops, the amount of food consumed increases, translating into reduction of the population of the Asian Cytrus Psyllid (Miua Nishimura 145). It also has a considerably long life span, and the females are known to feed more than the males. 3.4.2.Bacteria Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (in Chinese) is a disease that is dreaded by many citrus orchard farmers (Bove 7). It not only affects the leaves, but proceeds also to attack the fruits. The bacterium that causes this disease is referred to as Liberobacter asiaticum and it is parasitic. The bacterium stays in the cells of the plant, mainly the phloem cells (Hoy, Nguyen Jeyaprakash 2). In Asia, the vector for this parasite is the pest Asian Cytrus psyllid (Halbert and Manjunath 330). It survives in the presence of its host, the pest, Asian Citrus psyllid. However, the details of how the co-existence brings about the deadly greening disease to the plants are still unclear.The only information proven is that the Asian Cytrus Psyllid in contact with a plant that is contaminated, takes approximately 30 minutes to contract the pathogen. The pathogens survive through transition. They find their ways in the body of the pest and spread to the various developing organs of the pest. The bacterium mostly goes to the salivary glands so as to prepare for transition as the pest feed. The nymphs are the most affected since the bacterium finds an easy time spreading because of the development process. However, if they land on adults, then may not be very lucky to survive because the maturity span is longer and the adult may be already dead. The adults that feed on infected plants are less likely to be affected compared to the you ones that develop feeding on these affected plants because the development of the bacteria spreads more as the pest develops, something unlikely in the old already developed adults (Halbert and Manjunath 332) 3.4.3. Fungus Particular fungus is also classified among the pathogens that are enemies of the pest. One of the funguses studied is referred to as Hirsutella citriformis Speare. The study was carried out in Quadeloupe in the year 1998, January. However, the fungi are believed to work under condition that the relative humidity of the area where it is being used is high. Further studies conducted in Florida proved that when the pests were exposed to these fungi, they showed evidence of the presence of diseases in them. These showed that the fungi were affecting the pests negatively and therefore were capable of aiding their elimination. Through this experiment, we learn that the exposure of the pest to a certain species of the fungi Hirsutella citriformis Speare makes their genetic data distort and increases their mortality rate. 3.4.4. Enemies at the adult stage 220.127.116.11. Predators They include small insects that predate on them, and man. At an adult stage, there are those enemies that are similar to those that attack the nymphs. A large majority of the pests can be fed on by wide-ranging arthropods like hunting spiders namely Aranae: (oxyopidae, anyphaenidae, salticidae and clubionidae species), whiteflies, minute pirate bugs, lacewings Neuroptera: hemerobiidae, chrysopidae species, scales, syrphids or hover flies, Diptera syrphidae, or mealy bugs like Hemiptera: anthocoridae species (Michaud 1). Others are fed on by the coccinellid beetles that pose as the greatest predators, because they attack the pests at both stages- nymph and adult stage.Wherever they are present, the population of the pests goes considerably low. However, due to excessive use of insect-killing chemicals, the chances are that the pests can easily get a chance to increase rapidly in population because the predators are done away with. 18.104.22.168. Human beings as natural enemies Known to humans as destructive, the Asian citrus psyllid is seen as something that needs to be eliminated. As such, the elimination of the pest is a survival gesture. The human beings have developed different programmes to manage and control the pests so that they can check destruction and increase production. There are several methods employed by man in the attempt to eliminate these pests. Chemical compounds have been developed to eliminate these pests, thus posing a great danger to their survival. In addition to the chemical elimination, the trees infested by this pest are usually pruned and destroyed by burning them, so that the chances of reproduction and spread of the pest are eliminated. This considerably affects the population of Asian Citrus Psyllid. In addition to this, human beings can also take to crushing the psyllid physically hence eliminating them. All the other enemies of the Asian Citrus Psyllid are being utilized by man to ensure elimination, and enhance production of citrus plant products. In fact, parasitic, fungal and predatory enemies are introduced to area infested by these pests to ensure population reduction if not total eradication of the pest. More studies are underway to come up with a more effective biological method of reducing and eventually eliminating the Asian Citrus Psyllid, as it is considered one of the biggest threat to orchard farming. 22.214.171.124. Toxic Plants No particular plants are known to be poisonous to the Asian Citrus Psyllid. However, in an attempt to ensure the management of these pests, methods have been devised to intoxicate the citrus plants on which these pests feed. There are both foliar and soil treatments that cause the intoxication. When compounds like the neonicotinoid- imidacloprid is applied to the soil, it goes to the sap of the plant and is therefore responsible for the elimination of various plant pests that suck sap from the plant (Boina, Onagbola, Salyani Stelinski 2). When the concentration is high enough, the Asian Citrus Psyllid dies off immediately from over excitation. When the concentration is not so high to the point of killing the pests, then it affects the fertility rate of the pests, the life span and their productiveness. The treatment of the soil, though long term, is not as fast as that of the leaves. Insecticides sprayed on the leaves of the plants get more instant results. However, this is discouraged mostly because it affects the parasites that help in the management of the population of the pests. 3.5. Methods and Materials 3.5.0. Sampling Methods Objective #1 Record Natural Enemies Select six (sites) citrus groves (80 x 60m) of young grapefruit and orange trees between 2 and 4 years old 3 to 6 feet tall with new flush for visual observations (200 planted trees in plot) Record average temperature, draw a map of its location on the property, record GPS location growers field identification number and dimensions of trees of each study site Direct sampling observations at each site for 20 minutes on a weekly basis Using an optic visor and hand lens observe for any visual predators feeding on ACP, including ACP, eggs and nymphs (beetles, spiders, lacewings-if feeding do not record species) log in data into spreadsheet Transport any predators found in a plastic container at 40C to the Texas UniversityInspectory for identification analysis Objective #2 Determine Impact of Parasitoids (parasites) on ACP Destructive Sampling From one random citrus orchard (site) randomly select and label ten fresh flushes infested with nymphs; remove and collect by hand On selected site (to avoid any wilting) immediately separate and place each flush in a pre prepared aqua tube and place in Petri dish or tube holder Transport Petri dishes or tube holders in an ice chest at 40C to the Texas University Inspectory for observation of parasitoids Record and count number of nymphs per flush microscopically; to evaluate parasitism of ACP nymphs Place each Petri dish or aqua tube in a ventilated emerge tube Label emerge tube / Petri dish with parasitized nymphs with a sample number/date/location for emergence; using VWR labeling tape Store sample emerge tubes in Inspectory at 25C on a rack; refill tubes with squeeze bottle as needed After two weeks examine flushes microscopically for parasitized nymphs Remove emerged parasites from the emerge tubes, record species of parasite live or dead on ACP Preserve the parasites in ethyl alcohol for identification analysis Objective #3 Determine the Impact of Natural Enemies to ACP: density (population) Exclusion Intrusion Experiment (how much are they contributing to control the ACP) From a random citrus orchard (1 site) randomly select twenty fresh flushes from random trees infested with eggs Label/tag with date and sample number from predetermined numbering system; ten protected with fine cloth sleeve (caged) and ten unprotected; flushes are to be randomly selected from low, middle, and high and from outer and inner parts of the trees Record an estimate of predators and ACP eggs in the protected and unprotected flushes After seven days examine the selected flushes for the presence of ACP eggs Repeat process every seven days Remove and collect by hand and transport 20 flushes to Texas University Inspectory At the same citrus orchard (1 site) location select and label another twenty fresh flushes from random (different) trees infested with nymphs Label/tag with date and sample number from predetermined numbering system; ten protected with fine cloth sleeve (caged) and ten unprotected; flushes are to be randomly selected from low, middle, and high and from outer and inner parts of the trees Record an estimate of predators and ACP nymphs in the protected and unprotected flushes After seven days examine the selected flushes for the presence of ACP nymphs Repeat process every seven days Remove and collect by hand and transport 20 flushes to Texas University Inspectory 3.5.1. Study Area Observations will be carried out from early May to early October 2009, in citrus groves at the research field of the Texas. The sampling period will be designed to encompass the period of mortality rate on the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP). Twenty flush per grove will be randomly selected and inspected between 8:00 a.m. and 12:00 a.m. every 7 days for a total of 20 weeks. Visual predators feeding on ACP will be used for this experiment. 3.5.2. Experimental Site The study will be carried out in citrus plantation situated at Rio Red Grape Grapefruit 2006.The site covers an area of 4/8 acreages with a total of 240 citrus tree and 30 tree per row. For regular practices three year grapefruits trees will be selected covering an area of 6/8 acres with 240 trees whereas for Valencia oranges also for regular practice 4 year old trees are the best covering an area of 10/13 acres with 390 trees in total. For conventional practice or research farms four year old citrus trees will be chosen. For Shimotsu farms two years ruby red grapefruits will be selected and finally for Monte Alto Farms two years Valencia Oranges will be ideal. 3.5.3. Field Observation A. Materials 1. 1.7ml snap cap aqua tubes, (clear/amber and pre-sterilized), Plantariums single vials (7 x 1 diameter), Distilled water, Gamplers 4-mil Disposable Nitrite Gloves, Para film M IS, Ethyl Alcohol, Zeiss West Germany Microscope, Net sleeves, VWR Scientific Label Tape, Hand Lens, Ice chest, and Ice packs. 3.5.4. Sampling processing 1. 1.7ml snap cap aqua tubes, (clear/amber and pre-sterilized), Plantariums single vials (7 x 1 dia), Distilled water, Gamplers 4-mil Disposable Nitrite Gloves, Para film M IS, Ethyl Alcohol, Zeiss West Germany Microscope, Net sleeves, VWR Scientific Label Tape, Hand Lens, Ice chest, and Ice packs. 3.6. Exepected Results Asian citrus psyllid population is expected to decline sharply after the introduction of different kind of natural enemies. This is because the natural predators shall have a deductive effect on the pest population. The various preadots such as the birds, beetles, spiders and other insects shall act synergistically towards the elimination of the pest. In the short run, predator population shall also be expected to increase due to abundance of food (the Asian citrus psyllid). However, this may be determined by the initial population of each kind of predator introduced in the experimental plots and the palatability of the pest to each predator. However, the predator populations are expected to decline gradually as the pest population gradually declines. This expectation is based on the assumption that the pest forms the main source of food for all the different kinds of species introduced. Again, it shall also be assumed that the experiment shall be conducted in a closed habitat system such that due to natural forces of organisms to adjust to ecosystem disequilibrium, non of the predators shall move out of the experimental area to look for food incase the pest population is too low to sustain them. Worse still, a loss of biodiversity may occur within the experimental site if all the pest population is eliminated. This may lead to new findings of what the predators may turn to do in order to survive (for example, turn to new kinds of food sources, hibernate, migrate or so). 3.6.0. Statistical Analysis Essentially, two kinds of data are expected to be obtained, qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative form of data shall be obtained through making observations on both the specimens and experimental plots. Ecological changes, general population trends as well as predator behavior shall be observed and recorded. Quantitative data shall also be collected in order to have enough information before making major conclusions of the study. Some of the figures that shall be taken include population of each predator at experimental launch and at end, estimated pest population at beginning and end of the experiment, relative consumption of pests for each predator among others. Statistical analysis tools such Excel spreadsheets and SPSS program shall be utilized. Again, various graphs that compare different factors and measurements shall be made. For easy understanding of the results, tables and graphical representations shall also be made. 3.7. Conclusions This study is aimed at making critical conclusion points that shall form a basis for making essential agronomical decisions, especially in the control and management of asian citrus psyllid. The conclusion statement developed here may also form a basis for policy change or a change in agricultural extension approach, depending on their credibility and statistical evidence. 3.8. Recommendation From the gathered literature, a number of recommendations have been considered essential. Natural predators as a mode of pest control is not 100% effective because of the negative ecological imbalance this may bring upon total elimination of the pest. The most important point to consider is to maintain the level of Asian citrus psyllid pest at a level that is not harmful to citrus fruit production. As a result, natural predator method should be intergrated with other modes such as chemical use and physical methods in order to obtain optimum results. Secondly, there is need to do more research about the extend of the dangers and threats culminating from complete elimination of this pest. Technological advancement should also be incorporated with rgard to genetic engineering. By this, it is meant to conduct more research on possibility of genetically modified citrus fruit trees that are not only resistant to asian citrus psyllid pest, but also to drought and other challenges during growth. Another study of the pest survival and environmental habitat should be done. This study will lead better understanding of the pests life cyle and the best stages of the life cyle to intervene in order to obtain optimum control while ensuring minimal ecological damage and financial losses. Works Cited Ahmed,Mohammad A.,Integrated Pest Management of Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc) (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management https://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Entomology/theses/aljabr/thesis.html Anciso, J.R. Integrated pest management IPM in Texas citrus. Texas Cooperative Extension: College station. 2002. pp.149-162 Asian Citrus Psyllid. 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INTRODUCTION Aged Care in Australia Ã¢â¬â Industry Overview Population ageing require more health care services. Australian Aged care system is comprises of public, private and community institutions that provide services to old people. The Australian aged care system is globally recognised for high quality services, regulations, government funding and co-operation between government, community and service providers. Aged care services in Australia available to people, both in the form of residential services and home based services (The Australian trade commission 2015). Residential care is provided at the aged care facility, it is provided to those people who need high care. It provides livingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In recent years, the number of residential care places has increased; this is just because of increase the provision by profit providers, especially in major cities. Economic opportunities and challenges of this industry in future:- This section will outline the opportunities and challenges facing a firm in aged care Industry by using Population, Productivity and Participation, which are key drives of economic growth. Table 1. Population Projection ( Millions) Age range 2014-2015 2054-2055 0-14 4.5 6.9 15-64 15.8 23.8 65-84 3.1 7.0 85 and over 0.5 1.9 Total 23.9 39.7 1. POPULATION According to Intergenerational report (2015), AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s population will grow and change over next 40 years. There will be increase in population of old people and less number of young people in coming future. Table1. Shows that there will be increase in total population and people aged 65 above will more than double as compared to current period. Table 2. Life expectancy ( Years) Male 91.5 95.1 Female 93.6 96.6 Above table shows the increase in life expectancy of male and female in next 40 years. Expansion in aged care services and places There will be more demand for aged care